Volume 2 – Natural Gas: Operations and Transport. A Handbook for Students

The first chapter of Natural Gas: Operations and Transport deals with the chemical composition of raw gas and the contaminants contained within. Subsequently, a variety of methods for gas purification and processing in a gas plant are discussed as summarized in the following matrix.

A diagram with reference to acid gas removal based on adsorption in an amine plant can be seen below.

Gas plants are massive industrial structures stretching out onshore over a large terrain as can be seen on the following image of Keyera’s Rimbay plant in Canada.

(Source: Keyera Corporation via Dan Healing / Calgary Herald)

Putting such a plant offshore requires the assembly of all parts of that plant on very limited platform space. Goodwyn A is such an offshore gas platform (see below) located off the North West coast of Australia.

(Source: Woodside Energy)

Natural gas compression and pipeline transport are going to be addressed during the following sections of this text. Alternative means of transport in connection with natural gas liquefaction and LNG shipment are going to be highlighted in the last chapter of this 2nd volume. The image below shows a LNG carrier delivering LNG to the Adriatic LNG Terminal offshore Rovigo (near Venice) in Italy.

(Source: Adriatic LNG)

The following table of contents provides a more detailed overview of the topics addressed in Natural Gas: Operations and Transport. Please note that the numbering continues with the 8th chapter in continuation of the seven chapters presented in the 1st volume (Natural Gas: Exploration and Properties).

8. Chemical Gas Composition
8.1. Gas Composition: Determination
8.1.1. Hydrocarbon Gases: Alkanes
8.1.2. Non-Hydrocarbon Gases: Natural Gas Contaminants
8.1.2.1. Water Vapor (H2O)
8.1.2.2. Sulfur Components – Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
8.1.2.3. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
8.1.2.4. Nitrogen (N)
8.1.2.5. Other Components of Raw Natural Gas
8.1.2.5.1. Helium (He) and Other Noble Gases
8.1.2.5.2. Hydrogen (H)
8.1.2.5.3. Mercury (Hg)
References (8)

9. Gas Conditioning and Gas Processing
9.1. Gas Conditioning & Processing – Introduction
9.2. Gas – Oil – Water Separator
9.2.1. Separation – Introduction
9.2.2. Single-Stage Separation
9.2.3. Separator Design and Types
9.2.4. Multi-Stage Separation
9.2.5. Low Temperature Separation
9.2.6. Gas-Liquid Separation: Twister Technology
9.3. Gas Conditioning – Gas Treatment
9.3.1. Gas Treatment – Introduction
9.3.2. Dehydration and Hydrate Formation
9.3.2.1. Dehydration
9.3.2.1.1. Dehydration – Absorption
9.3.2.1.2. Dehydration – Adsorption
9.3.2.1.3. Dehydration – Other Processes
9.3.2.2. Hydrate Formation and Prevention
9.3.2.2.1. Structures of Gas Hydrates
9.3.2.2.2. Hydrate Formation in Circular Conduit
9.3.2.2.3. Hydrate Prevention
9.3.3. Acid Gas Removal
9.3.3.1. Acid Gas Removal – Introduction
9.3.3.2. Acid Gas – Removal Processes
9.3.3.2.1. Acid Gas – Absorption
9.3.3.2.2. Acid Gas – Adsorption
9.3.3.2.3. Acid Gas – Gas Permeation (Membranes)
9.3.3.2.4. Acid Gas – Other Processes
9.3.4. Nitrogen, Helium, Mercury – Removal
9.3.4.1. Removal of Nitrogen
9.3.4.2. Removal of Helium
9.3.4.3. Removal of Mercury
9.4. Gas Processing – NGL Recovery
9.4.1. Gas Processing – Introduction
9.4.2. Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquid (NGL) – Products
9.4.3. NGL Recovery – Gas Cooling
9.4.3.1. Gas Cooling – Expansion
9.4.3.2. Gas Cooling – Refrigerants
9.4.4. NGL Recovery – Absorption
9.4.5. NGL Recovery – Adsorption
9.4.6. Fractional Distillation
9.5. Pipeline Quality Natural Gas – Sales Gas Specifications
9.6. Up- and Midstream – Gas Industry Examples
9.6.1. Wet Gas – UK North Sea / Northern Sector
9.6.2. Dry Gas – UK North Sea / Southern Sector
9.6.3. Impurities – CO2 – Natuna
9.6.4. Impurities – H2S – Lacq
9.6.5. Offshore Gas Platform – Goodwyn A
References (9)

10. Compression: Boosting of Pressure
10.1. Introduction: Requirements for Compression and Pressure Maintenance
10.2. Compression and Pressure Boosting Principles
10.2.1. Compression – Gas Law
10.2.2. Compression – Efficiency, Horsepower and Head
10.2.2.1. Pressure Head – Liquid Flow
10.2.2.2. Pressure Head and Horsepower – Gas Flow
10.2.3. Compression – Design and Type
10.2.3.1. Compression – Stages
10.2.3.2. Compression – Parallel and in Series
10.2.3.3. Compression – Cooling and Scrubbing
10.2.3.4. Cooling – Cooler Design – Heat Exchanger
10.2.3.5. Compression – Operating Range
10.3. Types of Compressors
10.3.1. Classification of Compressors
10.3.2. Ejector
10.3.3. Centrifugal Compressor
10.3.4. Axial Flow Compressor
10.3.5. Reciprocating Compressor
10.3.6. Compressor Type – Comparison
10.3.7. Multiphase Pumps and Compressors – Gas Void Fraction
10.4. Compressor Drivers
10.4.1. Driver: Electric Motor
10.4.2. Driver: Reciprocating Engine
10.4.3. Driver: Gas Turbine
10.4.4. Driver – Comparison
References (10)

11. Pipelines and Gas Flow
11.1. Introduction: Gas Pipelines
11.1.1. Gas Transportation Network
11.1.2. Natural Gas Liquid and Product Pipelines
11.1.3. Offshore Pipelines – Gas Flow
11.2. Gas Transmission Pipelines: Features and Construction
11.2.1. Pipeline: Gas Flow – General Aspects
11.2.2. Pipeline Diameter and Pressure
11.2.3. Capacity: Compression and Looping
11.2.4. Pipe-Laying Onshore
11.2.5. Pipe Joints: Material and Classification
11.2.6. Pipe Joints: Welding
11.2.7. Corrosion: Coating – Cathodic Protection – Liner
11.2.7.1. Cathodic Protection
11.2.7.2. External Coating
11.2.7.3. Internal Coating and Internal Pipe Liners
11.2.8. Pigging
11.2.8.1. Utility- and Specialist Pigs
11.2.8.2. Intelligent Pigs
11.2.9. Pipeline Ownership and Cost Indicators
11.3. Offshore Gas Pipeline Construction
11.3.1. Subsea Pipelaying: Support Services
11.3.2. Offshore Pipelay Vessels and Methods
References (11)

12. Liquefied Natural Gas – LNG
12.1. Overview: Historical- and Current Markets
12.2. LNG Plant – Liquefaction Processes
12.2.1. Cascade Process – Pure Refrigerant
12.2.2. Mixed Refrigerant Processes
12.2.2.1. Mixed Refrigerant Process – Single Cycle
12.2.2.2. Mixed Refrigerant Process – Pre-cooling Cycle
12.2.2.3. Mixed Refrigerant Process – Dual Mixed Refrigerant Cycle
12.2.3. Compression-Expansion-Refrigeration Cycle and Other Processes
12.2.3.1. Compression-Expansion-Refrigeration Cycle
12.2.3.2. Other Natural Gas Liquefaction Processes and Stirling Engines
12.3. LNG Train – Components and Capacity
12.3.1. LNG Train – Components
12.3.2. LNG Train – Capacity
12.4. LNG Storage
12.4. LNG Carriers
12.4.1. Tank Design
12.4.1.1. Membrane Tank
12.4.1.2. Spherical Tank
12.4.2. Boil-off
12.4.3. LNG Carrier – Capacity
12.4.4. LNG Carrier – Chartering and Incoterms
12.6. LNG Receiving Terminal
12.7. Other LNG and NG Transportation Concepts: LNG Trucks – CNG Carriers
12.8. Offshore LNG – Examples and Projects
12.8.1. Offshore LNG Plant – FLNG – Projects
12.8.2. Offshore LNG Receiving Terminal
12.9. LNG and PNG Comparison: Transportation and Storage
References (12)

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