Volume 1 – Natural Gas: Exploration and Properties. A Handbook for Students

The first chapters of Natural Gas: Exploration and Properties provides an overview of the market environment and the geological environment with reference to natural gas. The following image shows a comparison of prices of gas (in red) versus oil (green) and coal (blue).

Accumulations of gas (in dark red) on 3D seismic can be viewed upon below.

Natural gas properties and characteristics are dealt with during subsequent chapters, while phase diagrams relating to gas reservoirs form part of an additional section. Geophysical and formation evaluation methods are further described in the following chapters. The 1st volume ultimately ends with an introduction to the principles relating to fluid and gas flow and the formation testing of gas reservoirs.

The following table of contents provides a more detailed overview of the topics addressed in Natural Gas: Exploration and Properties.

1. Natural Gas: Introduction and General Environment
1.1. Natural Gas Projects: Working Environment
1.2. Natural Gas and Fossil Fuels: Global Market Environment
1.2.1. Reserves
1.2.2. Production
1.2.3. Consumption
1.2.4. Natural Gas: Production – Consumption – Balance
1.2.5. Pricing
Appendix: Natural Gas: Production – Consumption – Balances
References (1)

2. Natural Gas: Origins and Geological Environment
2.1. Geological Principles and Parameters
2.1.1. Origins of Natural Gas
2.1.2. Formation: Temperature, Pressure, Depth, Age and Origins
2.1.2.1. Temperature-, Geothermal- and Pressure Gradients:
2.1.2.2. Geological Depth and Petroleum
2.1.2.3. Maturity of Hydrocarbons
2.1.2.4. Biogenic- and Thermogenic Gas
2.1.2.5. Geological Era of Petroleum
2.1.2.6. Source Rock and Migration
2.1.2.7. Earth’s Interior: Tectonics and Sedimentation Tendencies
2.2. Natural Gas in Hydrocarbon Reservoirs
2.2.1. Natural Gas and Hydrocarbon Recovery Mechanisms
2.2.1.1. Primary Drive Mechanisms – Primary Recovery
2.2.1.2. Artifical Drive Mechanisms – Secondary and Tertiary Recovery
2.3. Unconventional Gas Resources and Accumulations
2.3.1. Tight Gas Reservoirs: Tight Sandstones and Shale Gas
2.3.2. Coalbed Methane
2.3.3. Natural Gas Hydrate Accumulations
2.3.4. Gas Accumulations in Aquifers
2.3.5. Biogas and Other Sources of Unconventional Gas
References (2)

3. Natural Gas: Properties and Characteristics
3.1. Physical and Other Properties: Features and Values
3.1.1. Boiling Point
3.1.2. Critical Points
3.1.3. Melting- and Freezing Point
3.1.4. Formation Volume Factor
3.1.5. Gas Volume to Liquid Volume
3.1.6. Gas Oil Ratio
3.1.7. Solubility and Saturation
3.1.8. Density, Specific Volume, Compressibility and Bulk Modulus
3.1.9. Specific Gravity – Relative Density
3.1.10. API Gravity
3.1.11. Molecular Mass and Molecular Weight – Selected Gas Laws
3.1.12. Mass to Volume Conversion
3.1.13. Gas Deviation Factor
3.1.14. Vapor Pressure
3.1.15. Viscosity and Newtonian Fluid
3.1.16. Diffusion Coefficient
3.1.17. Flammability
3.1.18. Flash Point, Fire Point, Ignition and Autoignition Temperature
3.1.19. Combustion and Combustion Temperature
3.1.20. Flame Temperature
3.1.21. Flame Speed
3.1.22. Octane Number
3.1.23. Surface Tension and Interfacial Tension
3.1.24. Wettability in Porous Media and Fluid Mobility (Permeability)
3.1.25. Refractive Index
3.1.26. Capacitance and Dielectricity
3.2. Basic Thermodynamic Principles, Properties and Potentials
3.2.1. Types of Energy
3.2.2. Energy Balance and the First Law of Thermodynamics
3.2.3. Enthalpy and Heat
3.2.3.1. Adiabatic-, Reversible- and Other Processes
3.2.3.2. Net and Gross Heating Value
3.2.3.3. Wobbe Index
3.2.3.4. Heat Capacity
3.2.3.5. Specific Heat Capacity
3.2.3.6. Joule-Thomson Effect and Van der Waals Gas
3.2.3.7. Thermal Conductivity
3.2.3.8. Volumetric Heat Capacity
3.2.3.9. Latent Heat
3.2.4. Entropy and Other Thermodynamik Properties and Potentials
3.2.4.1. Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
3.2.4.2. Standard Molar Entropy, Entropy of Fusion and Entropy of Vaporization
3.2.4.3. Thermodynamic Potentials
3.2.4.4. Fugacity
References (3)
Appendix-1: List of Selected Properties for C1 to C5 Hydrocarbons (Alkanes)
Appendix-2: Compositional Gas Analysis

4. Types of Gas and Gas Behavior
4.1. Types of Produced Gas and Reservoirs
4.1.1. Associated and Nonassociated (ok) Gas
4.1.2. Wet Gas, Dry Gas and Gas-Condensate
4.2. State of a Fluid and Phase Behavior of Natural Gas
4.2.1. Phase Diagram for a Single Component System – Triple Point
4.2.2. Gibbs Phase Rule
4.2.3. Phase Diagram for a Multi Component System – Hydrocarbon Reservoir
4.2.3.1. Phase Diagram: Dew Point and Bubble Point
4.2.3.2. Phase Diagram: Circondentherm and Circondendbar
4.2.3.3. Supercritical Fluid Phase
4.2.3.4. Oil Reservoir and Associated Gas
4.2.3.5. Nonassociated Gas Reservoir
4.2.3.6. Gas-Condensate Reservoir and Gas Cycling
4.2.3.7. Retrograde Condensation
4.3. Ideal- and Real Gas Law – Equations of State
4.3.1. Ideal Gas Law
4.3.2. Real Gas Equation and Compressibility Factor
4.3.3. Gas Law and Gas Mixture
4.3.4. Law of Corresponding States
4.3.5. Equation of State
4.3.6. Gas in Place and Gas Law
4.3.6.1. Volumetric Method and Porosity
4.3.6.2. Material Balance Method
References (4)

5. Natural Gas: Geophysical Evaluation and Seismic Principles
5.1. Introduction: Geophysical Evaluation
5.1.1. Seismic Methods: Some Principles
5.1.1.1. Seismic Reflection
5.1.1.2. Vp/Vs-Ratio and Poisson-Ratio
5.1.2. AVO-Analysis
5.2. Fractured Reservoir: Introduction and Industry Example
5.2.1. Introduction to Seismic Discontinuities and Image Logs
5.2.2. Spraberry Trend: Field History and Fluid Injection
References (5)

6. Formation Evaluation
6.1. Geological Logs
6.1.1. Mud Log: Drilling Time, Mud Logging and Cutting Analysis
6.1.2. Core Samples
6.2. Geophysical Logs
6.2.1. Caliper Log
6.2.2. Electrical Survey Logs (Resistivity) and Electromagnetic Log Types
6.2.2.1. Resistivity Logs
6.2.2.2 Electromagnetic Logs – Electromagnetic Propagation Logs – Dielectric Logs
6.2.3. Porosity Logs (Porosity-Mineralogy Logs)
6.2.3.1. Nuclear Porosity Logs
6.2.3.1.1. Density Log
6.2.3.1.2. Neutron Log
6.2.3.1.3. Density- and Neutron Logs
6.2.3.1.4. Pulsed Neutron Log
6.2.3.2. Sonic Porosity Logs
6.2.3.3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Logs
6.2.4. Lithology Logs (Mineralogy Logs)
6.2.4.1. Spontaneous Potential (SP) Log
6.2.4.2. Gamma Ray (GR) Log
6.3. Production Logging
References (6)

7. Flow of Gas: Fluid Flow and Formation Testing
7.1. Fluid Flow – Introduction
7.1.1. Darcy’s Law – Permeability – and Bernoulli’s Law
7.1.2. Specific Flow Pattern
7.1.3. Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Behavior
7.2. Flow of Gas in Circular Conduit
7.2.1. Gas Flow in Circular Pipe: Flow equations
7.2.2. Gas Flow in Circular Pipe: Multiphase Flow
7.2.2.1. Multiphase Flow – Introduction
7.2.2.2. Multiphase Flow – Flow Regimes
7.2.2.2.1. Horizontal and Vertical Flow Pattern
7.2.2.2.2. Horizontal Flow Specifics
7.2.2.2.3. Vertical Flow Specifics
7.2.3. Gas Well: Flow from Reservoir to Surface
7.2.3.1. Flow Rate and Flow String Size
7.2.3.2. Two-Phase Flow and Liquid Loading – Artificial Lifting
7.2.3.3. Flow Rate: Water Blocking and Sand Production
7.2.3.4. Flow Control
7.3. Fluid Flow in Porous Media
7.3.1. Flow of Gas: Reservoir to Wellbore – Darcy’s Law
7.3.2. Flow in porous media: Diffusivity Equation
7.3.2.1. Diffusion: General Introduction
7.3.2.2. Hydraulic- and Thermal Diffusivity Equation
7.3.2.3. Diffusivity Equation: Well Testing Principles
7.3.2.4. Diffusivity Equation: Radial- versus Linear Flow
7.3.3. Formation Testing: Well Test
7.3.3.1. Pressure Buildup Test
7.3.3.2. Pressure Drawdown Test
7.3.3.3. Deliverability Test
7.3.4. Formation Testing: Reservoir Fluid Sampling
7.3.4.1. Representativity
7.3.4.2. Wireline Formation Tester
7.3.4.3. Downhole- and Surface Sampling
References (7)

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