Volume 3 – Natural Gas: Customers and Consuming Industries. A Handbook for Students

Natural Gas: Customers and Consuming Industries is meant to accompany the reader along the flow of gas from the point of delivery to the burner tip and concludes the physical flow of gas at the point of consumption.

(Source: American Gas Association, AGA)

This volume consists of four chapters commencing with chapter 13, which deals with basic technical aspects of gas marketing, especially gas metering, storage, and distribution. Chapter 14 provides a description of the various gas markets for residential, commercial and industrial customers (including a brief description of natural gas vehicles and fuel cell technology) while concluding with an introduction to natural gas trading and hedging instruments.

Chapter 15 and 16 relate to the role of natural gas in two gas-consuming industries in connection with power generation

(Source: GE – General Electric)

and the role of natural gas as a feedstock in the petrochemical industry also in connection with gas-to-liquid (GTL) technology. The image below shows the Sasol 1 pilot GTL plant (in Sasolburg) in November 2013.

(Source: infrastructurene.ws)

The following table of contents provides a more detailed overview of the topics addressed in Natural Gas: Customers and Consuming Industries. Please note that the numbering continues with the 13th chapter in continuation of the twelve chapters presented in volume 1 and 2.

13. Natural Gas: Metering, Storage, Distribution
13.1. Gas Flow – Metering
13.1.1. Flow Rate – Introduction
13.1.2. Flowmeters Orifice Meter and Pulsation Dampening Head Meters – Differential Pressure Line Meters Mechanical Meters Other Flowmeters
13.2. Natural Gas Storage
13.2.1. Gas Storage – Load Factors Gas Storage – Peak Shaving Underground Gas Storage – Base Load
13.2.2. Underground Gas Storage – Equipment and Facilities Cushion Gas Storage – Wells
13.2.3. Flow of Gas: Storage Storage Compressor: Suction- and Discharge Pressure Storage Reservoir – Pressure Decline and Pressure Volume History Curves
13.2.4. Storage Reservoir – Quality and Drive Mechanism
13.3. Distribution: Natural Gas
13.3.1. Distribution System
13.3.2. Distribution Pipelines
References (13)

14. Natural Gas: Customers and Trading
14.1. Natural Gas Markets
14.1.1. Residential Market
14.1.2. Commercial Market
14.1.3. Natural Gas Vehicles (NGV) and Other Gas Engines
14.1.4. Fuel Cells Introduction: Fuel Cell Technology Fuel Cell Vehicles: Cars and Others Stationary Fuel Cells – Power Micro Fuel Cell Systems and Other Applications
14.1.5. Industrial Market
14.2. Natural Gas Trading
14.2.1. Natural Gas Market: Regulative Environment Regulation – Deregulation Specific Regulatory Environment
14.2.2. Gas Marketing: Gas Sales and Pricing Agreements Gas Sales Agreement Gas Pricing Agreement
14.2.3. Natural Gas Trading and Hedging Instruments Hedging: Introduction Forward Contracts Futures Options Price Swaps
References (14)

15. Natural Gas and Power
15.1. Introduction: Gas to Power and Power to Gas
15.1.1. Gas to Power
15.1.2. Power to Gas
15.2. Combined Cycle Power Generation (CCPG)
15.2.1. CCPG Plant – Components CCGT: Gas Turbines Power Generation and Transmission Heat Recovery Steam Generator Steam Turbine Condenser and Cooling Systems Wet Cooling Systems Dry Cooling Systems
15.2.2. Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) – Design Variations Single-shaft Arrangement Turbine Configuration: 2 x 1 and Others Gas Turbines: Open Cycle Emission Reduction – NOx Repowering Integrated Gasified Combined Cycle (IGCC) Offshore Combined Cycle Power Station Combined Cycle Power Station – Additional Concepts
15.2.3. CCPG Plant – Specific Features and Cost Factors Efficiency Combined Cycle Power Plant: CAPEX Combined Cycle Power Plant: OPEX – Fixed and Variable Availability, Load, Emissions and Other Factors
15.3. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) – Cogeneration
15.3.1. CHP – Overview
15.3.2. CHP – Electricity
15.3.3. CHP – Heat
15.3.4. CHP – District Heating & Cooling
15.4. Independent Power Producers, Market and Company Examples
15.4.1. Independent Power Producers
15.4.2. Market and Company Examples
References (15)

16. Petrochemicals: Natural Gas – Hydrocarbons
16.1. Classification: Hydrocarbons – Petrochemical Building Blocks (C2, C3, C4)
16.1.1. Acyclic Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Saturated Acyclic Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Alkanes Alkyl-Groups and Alkylation Unsaturated Acyclic Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Alkenes – Olefins Conversion of Alkanes to Alkenes: Pyrolysis and Cracking Ethene – Ethylene Propene – Propylene Polymerization of Olefins and Others Alkynes Alkadienes
16.1.2. Cyclic Hydrocarbons Alicyclic Hydrocarbons Aromatic Hydrocarbons
16.2. Methane – Synthesis Gas: Petrochemical Building Block (C1)
16.2.1. Methane: Direct Derivates
16.2.2. Methane: Synthesis Gas – Syngas Synthesis Gas – Manufacturing Synthetic Natural Gas and Manufactured Gas
16.2.3. Ammonia Synthesis Gas: Ammonia Production Chemicals Produced from Ammonia Ammonia: Derivatives Urea Ammonia and Urea – Nitrogenous and Other Fertilizers
16.2.4. Methanol Synthesis Gas: Methanol Production Methanol: Derivatives Methylation – Ethers – MTBE Formaldehyde and Other Chemicals Produced from Methanol
16.2.5. Oxo Chemicals – Hydroformylation
16.2.6. Synthetic Fuel – Gas-to-Liquid (GTL): Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Olefins-to-Gasoline, Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG), Gas-to-Alcohol Esters, Gas-to-Ethylene and Gasoline, Syngas-to-Gasoline Plus (STG+) Gas-to-Liquid (Fisher-Tropsch Synthesis) Olefins to Gasoline Alkylation Polymerization Methanol-to-Gasoline Gas-to-Alcohol Esters Gas-to-Ethylene and Gasoline (Oxidative Coupling of Methane) Syngas to Gasoline Plus (STG+)
16.2.7. Synthesis Gas: Hydrogen and Hydrogenation
16.3. Chemical Treatment of Natural Gas and Other Hydrocarbons
16.3.1. Oxygenated Hydrocarbons Alcohols: Ethanol (and Others) Ketones: Aceton (and Others) Aldehydes: Acetaldehyde (and Others) Organic Acids: Carboxylic- and Other Acids Saturated, Aliphatic, Monocarboxylic Acids – Acetic Acid Unsaturated, Aliphatic, Monocarboxylic Acids – Acrylic Acid Unsaturated, Aliphatic, Dicarboxylic Acids – Maleic Acid Saturated, Aliphatic, Dicarboxylic Acids – Adipic Acid Other Organic Acids – Phtalic Acid Acidity: ph-value Esters: Ethyl Acetate Ethers: Oxygenates Anhydrides: Acetic Anhydride
16.3.2. Nitrogenated Hydrocarbons Nitration and Nitrogen Compounds Amination and Ammine (Derivatives)
16.3.3. Halogenated Hydrocarbons Chloromethanes Chlorofluorocarbons
16.3.4. Sulfur – Hydrocarbons
References (16)


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