Volume 3 – Natural Gas: Customers and Consuming Industries. A Handbook for Students

Natural Gas: Customers and Consuming Industries is meant to accompany the reader along the flow of gas from the point of delivery to the burner tip and concludes the physical flow of gas at the point of consumption.

(Source: American Gas Association, AGA)

This volume consists of four chapters commencing with chapter 13, which deals with basic technical aspects of gas marketing, especially gas metering, storage, and distribution. Chapter 14 provides a description of the various gas markets for residential, commercial and industrial customers (including a brief description of natural gas vehicles and fuel cell technology) while concluding with an introduction to natural gas trading and hedging instruments.

Chapter 15 and 16 relate to the role of natural gas in two gas-consuming industries in connection with power generation

(Source: GE – General Electric)

and the role of natural gas as a feedstock in the petrochemical industry also in connection with gas-to-liquid (GTL) technology. The image below shows the Sasol 1 pilot GTL plant (in Sasolburg) in November 2013.

(Source: infrastructurene.ws)

The following table of contents provides a more detailed overview of the topics addressed in Natural Gas: Customers and Consuming Industries. Please note that the numbering continues with the 13th chapter in continuation of the twelve chapters presented in volume 1 and 2.

13. Natural Gas: Metering, Storage, Distribution
13.1. Gas Flow – Metering
13.1.1. Flow Rate – Introduction
13.1.2. Flowmeters
13.1.2.1. Orifice Meter and Pulsation Dampening
13.1.2.2. Head Meters – Differential Pressure
13.1.2.3. Line Meters
13.1.2.3.1. Mechanical Meters
13.1.2.3.2. Other Flowmeters
13.2. Natural Gas Storage
13.2.1. Gas Storage – Load Factors
13.2.1.1. Gas Storage – Peak Shaving
13.2.1.2. Underground Gas Storage – Base Load
13.2.2. Underground Gas Storage – Equipment and Facilities
13.2.2.1. Cushion Gas
13.2.2.2. Storage – Wells
13.2.3. Flow of Gas: Storage
13.2.3.1. Storage Compressor: Suction- and Discharge Pressure
13.2.3.2. Storage Reservoir – Pressure Decline and Pressure Volume History Curves
13.2.4. Storage Reservoir – Quality and Drive Mechanism
13.3. Distribution: Natural Gas
13.3.1. Distribution System
13.3.2. Distribution Pipelines
References (13)

14. Natural Gas: Customers and Trading
14.1. Natural Gas Markets
14.1.1. Residential Market
14.1.2. Commercial Market
14.1.3. Natural Gas Vehicles (NGV) and Other Gas Engines
14.1.4. Fuel Cells
14.1.4.1. Introduction: Fuel Cell Technology
14.1.4.2. Fuel Cell Vehicles: Cars and Others
14.1.4.3. Stationary Fuel Cells – Power
14.1.4.4. Micro Fuel Cell Systems and Other Applications
14.1.5. Industrial Market
14.2. Natural Gas Trading
14.2.1. Natural Gas Market: Regulative Environment
14.2.1.1. Regulation – Deregulation
14.2.1.2. Specific Regulatory Environment
14.2.2. Gas Marketing: Gas Sales and Pricing Agreements
14.2.2.1. Gas Sales Agreement
14.2.2.2. Gas Pricing Agreement
14.2.3. Natural Gas Trading and Hedging Instruments
14.2.3.1. Hedging: Introduction
14.2.3.2. Forward Contracts
14.2.3.3. Futures
14.2.3.4. Options
14.2.3.5. Price Swaps
References (14)

15. Natural Gas and Power
15.1. Introduction: Gas to Power and Power to Gas
15.1.1. Gas to Power
15.1.2. Power to Gas
15.2. Combined Cycle Power Generation (CCPG)
15.2.1. CCPG Plant – Components
15.2.1.1. CCGT: Gas Turbines
15.2.1.2. Power Generation and Transmission
15.2.1.3. Heat Recovery Steam Generator
15.2.1.4. Steam Turbine
15.2.1.5. Condenser and Cooling Systems
15.2.1.5.1. Wet Cooling Systems
15.2.1.5.2 Dry Cooling Systems
15.2.2. Combined Cycle Power Plant (CCPP) – Design Variations
15.2.2.1. Single-shaft Arrangement
15.2.2.2. Turbine Configuration: 2 x 1 and Others
15.2.2.3. Gas Turbines: Open Cycle
15.2.2.4. Emission Reduction – NOx
15.2.2.5. Repowering
15.2.2.6. Integrated Gasified Combined Cycle (IGCC)
15.2.2.7. Offshore Combined Cycle Power Station
15.2.2.8. Combined Cycle Power Station – Additional Concepts
15.2.3. CCPG Plant – Specific Features and Cost Factors
15.2.3.1. Efficiency
15.2.3.2. Combined Cycle Power Plant: CAPEX
15.2.3.3. Combined Cycle Power Plant: OPEX – Fixed and Variable
15.2.3.4. Availability, Load, Emissions and Other Factors
15.3. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) – Cogeneration
15.3.1. CHP – Overview
15.3.2. CHP – Electricity
15.3.3. CHP – Heat
15.3.4. CHP – District Heating & Cooling
15.4. Independent Power Producers, Market and Company Examples
15.4.1. Independent Power Producers
15.4.2. Market and Company Examples
References (15)

16. Petrochemicals: Natural Gas – Hydrocarbons
16.1. Classification: Hydrocarbons – Petrochemical Building Blocks (C2, C3, C4)
16.1.1. Acyclic Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
16.1.1.1. Saturated Acyclic Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
16.1.1.1.1. Alkanes
16.1.1.1.2. Alkyl-Groups and Alkylation
16.1.1.2. Unsaturated Acyclic Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
16.1.1.2.1. Alkenes – Olefins
16.1.1.2.1.1. Conversion of Alkanes to Alkenes: Pyrolysis and Cracking
16.1.1.2.1.2. Ethene – Ethylene
16.1.1.2.1.3. Propene – Propylene
16.1.1.2.1.4. Polymerization of Olefins and Others
16.1.1.2.2. Alkynes
16.1.1.2.3. Alkadienes
16.1.2. Cyclic Hydrocarbons
16.1.2.1. Alicyclic Hydrocarbons
16.1.2.2. Aromatic Hydrocarbons
16.2. Methane – Synthesis Gas: Petrochemical Building Block (C1)
16.2.1. Methane: Direct Derivates
16.2.2. Methane: Synthesis Gas – Syngas
16.2.2.1. Synthesis Gas – Manufacturing
16.2.2.2. Synthetic Natural Gas and Manufactured Gas
16.2.3. Ammonia
16.2.3.1. Synthesis Gas: Ammonia Production
16.2.3.2. Chemicals Produced from Ammonia
16.2.3.2.1. Ammonia: Derivatives
16.2.3.2.2. Urea
16.2.3.2.3. Ammonia and Urea – Nitrogenous and Other Fertilizers
16.2.4. Methanol
16.2.4.1. Synthesis Gas: Methanol Production
16.2.4.2. Methanol: Derivatives
16.2.4.2.1. Methylation – Ethers – MTBE
16.2.4.2.2. Formaldehyde and Other Chemicals Produced from Methanol
16.2.5. Oxo Chemicals – Hydroformylation
16.2.6. Synthetic Fuel – Gas-to-Liquid (GTL): Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Olefins-to-Gasoline, Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG), Gas-to-Alcohol Esters, Gas-to-Ethylene and Gasoline, Syngas-to-Gasoline Plus (STG+)
16.2.6.1. Gas-to-Liquid (Fisher-Tropsch Synthesis)
16.2.6.2. Olefins to Gasoline
16.2.6.2.1. Alkylation
16.2.6.2.2. Polymerization
16.2.6.3. Methanol-to-Gasoline
16.2.6.4. Gas-to-Alcohol Esters
16.2.6.5. Gas-to-Ethylene and Gasoline (Oxidative Coupling of Methane)
16.2.6.6. Syngas to Gasoline Plus (STG+)
16.2.7. Synthesis Gas: Hydrogen and Hydrogenation
16.3. Chemical Treatment of Natural Gas and Other Hydrocarbons
16.3.1. Oxygenated Hydrocarbons
16.3.1.1. Alcohols: Ethanol (and Others)
16.3.1.2. Ketones: Aceton (and Others)
16.3.1.3. Aldehydes: Acetaldehyde (and Others)
16.3.1.4. Organic Acids: Carboxylic- and Other Acids
16.3.1.4.1. Saturated, Aliphatic, Monocarboxylic Acids – Acetic Acid
16.3.1.4.2. Unsaturated, Aliphatic, Monocarboxylic Acids – Acrylic Acid
16.3.1.4.3. Unsaturated, Aliphatic, Dicarboxylic Acids – Maleic Acid
16.3.1.4.4. Saturated, Aliphatic, Dicarboxylic Acids – Adipic Acid
16.3.1.4.5. Other Organic Acids – Phtalic Acid
16.3.1.4.6. Acidity: ph-value
16.3.1.5. Esters: Ethyl Acetate
16.3.1.6. Ethers: Oxygenates
16.3.1.7. Anhydrides: Acetic Anhydride
16.3.2. Nitrogenated Hydrocarbons
16.3.2.1. Nitration and Nitrogen Compounds
16.3.2.2. Amination and Ammine (Derivatives)
16.3.3. Halogenated Hydrocarbons
16.3.3.1. Chloromethanes
16.3.3.2. Chlorofluorocarbons
16.3.4. Sulfur – Hydrocarbons
References (16)

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